$261 billion (2018)
How they do it: The Toyota Production System set off demand-driven production, replenishing the inventory on demand so that internal inventories were reduced to a minimum. The introduction of the Toyota Production System obliged the company to reorganise its entire value chain in such a way as to reduce waste and costs, and at the same time maintain a clear customer focus.
How they do it: In 2010, Toyota licensed its hybrid vehicle technology to Mazda. Mazda leveraged this technology to introduce a hybrid vehicle in 2013 in the Japanese market, based partly on the Toyota Prius hybrid technology.