Explore: Companies


This section provides an overview of all firms represented in our database. Find out more about any firm via the short description and select it to access the company profile (including metadata about the firm, an assessment of the key business model patterns and a list of similar firms).

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ARM

Arm Holdings (Arm) is a British multinational semiconductor and software design company, owned by SoftBank Group and its Vision Fund. Headquartered in Cambridge, United Kingdom, its primary business is in the design of ARM processors (CPUs), although it also designs software development tools under the DS-5, RealView and Keil brands, as well as systems and platforms, system-on-a-chip (SoC) infrastructure and software. It is considered to be market dominant for processors in mobile phones (smartphones or otherwise) and tablet computers. The company is one of the best-known 'Silicon Fen' companies.

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Abbot Downing

As a brand of the multinational bank Wells Fargo, Abbot Downing offers financial services business to the wealthiest sector of society, ‘ultra-high-net-worth’ individuals capable of investing in excess of US $50 million. In return, clients receive a range of services that goes beyond those of traditional banks, such as asset planning over family generations, wealth education, risk assessment, trust management, tax payment support and legacy planning. The company is able to operate profitably with a relatively small customer base, since its fees are very high.

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Abril

Abril Moda is a fashion brand that was created using the Open Business model out of 29 small textile companies based in Costa Rica. These companies formed a consortium to unite their efforts to create a single fashion brand under which to market their products. Using the social media platform hi5, and with support from their partner Barrabes, these companies succeeded in sharing their marketing and communication resources, enabling the consortium to split the costs of an effective marketing and branding campaign.

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Airbnb

Airbnb is an American company which operates an online marketplace and hospitality service for people to lease or rent short-term lodging including holiday cottages, apartments, homestays, hostel beds, or hotel rooms, to participate in or facilitate experiences related to tourism such as walking tours, and to make reservations at restaurants. The company does not own any real estate or conduct tours; it is a broker which receives percentage service fees in conjunction with every booking. Like all hospitality services, Airbnb is an example of collaborative consumption and sharing. The company has over 4 million lodging listings in 65,000 cities and 191 countries and has facilitated over 260 million check-ins.

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Aldi

Aldi is the common brand of two discount supermarket chains with over 10,000 stores in 20 countries, and an estimated combined turnover of more than €50 billion. Based in Germany, the chain was founded by brothers Karl and Theo Albrecht in 1946 when they took over their mother's store in Essen, which had been in operation since 1913. Aldi's German operations consist of Aldi Nord's 35 individual regional companies with about 2,500 stores in western, northern, and Eastern Germany, and Aldi Süd's 32 regional companies with 1,600 stores in western and southern Germany. Internationally, Aldi Nord operates in Denmark, France, the Benelux countries, Portugal, Spain and Poland, while Aldi Süd operates in Ireland, Great Britain, Hungary, Switzerland, Australia, China, Italy, Austria and Slovenia.

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Amazon Kindle

The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store. The hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, and as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States.

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Amazon Store

Amazon is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994. The tech giant is the largest Internet retailer in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization, and second largest after Alibaba Group in terms of total sales. The amazon.com website started as an online bookstore and later diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization.

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Amazon Web Services

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon.com that provides on-demand cloud computing platforms to individuals, companies and governments, on a paid subscription basis. The technology allows subscribers to have at their disposal a virtual cluster of computers, available all the time, through the Internet. AWS's version of virtual computers emulate most of the attributes of a real computer including hardware (CPU(s) & GPU(s) for processing, local/RAM memory, hard-disk/SSD storage); a choice of operating systems; networking; and pre-loaded application software such as web servers, databases, CRM, etc.

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American Airlines

American Airlines is a major United States airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, revenue, scheduled passengers carried, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, and number of destinations served. American together with its regional partners operates an extensive international and domestic network with an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries.

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American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City. The company was founded in 1850 and is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is best known for its charge card, credit card, and traveler's cheque businesses. In 2016, credit cards using the American Express network accounted for 22.9% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US. As of December 31, 2017, the company had 112.8 million cards in force, including 50 million cards in force in the United States, each with an average annual spending of $18,519.

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Apple iPhone/AppStore

iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software. The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The original iPhone was described as 'revolutionary' and a 'game-changer' for the mobile phone industry. Newer iterations have also garnered praise, and the iPhone's success has been credited with helping to make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.

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Apple iPod/iTunes

The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about ​8 1⁄2 months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released. As of July 27, 2017, only the iPod Touch remains in production. Before the release of iOS 5, the iPod branding was used for the media player included with the iPhone and iPad, a combination of the Music and Videos apps on the iPod Touch. As of iOS 5, separate apps named 'Music' and 'Videos' are standardized across all iOS-powered products. While the iPhone and iPad have essentially the same media player capabilities as the iPod line, they are generally treated as separate products. During the middle of 2010, iPhone sales overtook those of the iPod.

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Aravind Eye Care System

Aravind Eye Hospitals is a hospital chain in India. It was founded by Dr. Govindappa Venkataswamy (popularly known as Dr.V) at Madurai, Tamil Nadu in 1976. It has grown into a network of eye hospitals and has had a major impact in eradicating cataract related blindness in India. As of 2012, Aravind has treated nearly 32 million patients and performed 4 million surgeries, the majority of them being cheap or free making it the world’s largest and most productive eye-care service group. The model of Aravind Eye Care hospitals has been applauded and has become a subject for numerous case studies across the world.

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BASF

BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world. The BASF Group comprises subsidiaries and joint ventures in more than 80 countries and operates six integrated production sites and 390 other production sites in Europe, Asia, Australia, the Americas and Africa. Its headquarters is located in Ludwigshafen, Germany. BASF has customers in over 190 countries and supplies products to a wide variety of industries. Despite its size and global presence, BASF has received relatively little public attention since it abandoned manufacturing and selling BASF-branded consumer electronics products in the 1990s. At the end of 2015, the company employed more than 122,000 people, with over 52,800 in Germany alone. In 2015, BASF posted sales of €70.4 billion and income from operations before special items of about €6.7 billion. The company is currently expanding its international activities with a particular focus on Asia.

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Bayer

Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company. It is headquartered in Leverkusen, where its illuminated sign is a landmark. Bayer's primary areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; consumer healthcare products; agricultural chemicals and biotechnology products; and high value polymers. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The company's motto is 'science for a better life.' Bayer's first and best known product was aspirin.

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Best Buy

Best Buy is an American multinational consumer electronics retailer headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota. It was originally founded by Richard M. Schulze and James Wheeler in 1966 as an audio specialty store called Sound of Music. In 1983, it was rebranded under its current name with more emphasis placed on consumer electronics. Best Buy was named 'Company of the Year' by Forbes magazine in 2004, 'Specialty Retailer of the Decade' by Discount Store News in 2001, ranked in the Top 10 of 'America\'s Most Generous Corporations' by Forbes in 2005 (based on 2004 giving), and made Fortune magazine's list of 'Most Admired Companies' in 2006.

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Blacksocks

Blacksocks is a European sock subscription service and online retailer. For an annual subscription price, customers receive three pairs of socks three times a year. The socks come in a limited variety of sizes and styles, with options such as calf socks, knee socks and silk cashmere socks. The socks are manufactured near Milan, Italy. The company has also expanded into a line of underwear and t-shirts, as well as offering athletic and ski socks. Blacksocks has 60,000 active customers, primarily in France, Germany and Switzerland, and, as of March, 2009, the company maintains a growing presence in the United States.

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Blockbuster

Blockbuster, was an American-based provider of home movie and video game rental services through video rental shops, DVD-by-mail, streaming, video on demand, and cinema theater. Blockbuster became internationally known throughout the 1990s. At its peak in 2004, Blockbuster employed 84,300 people worldwide, including about 58,500 in the United States and about 25,800 in other countries, and had 9,094 stores in total, with more than 4,500 of these in the US.

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Bosch

Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung. Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; mobility solutions, consumer goods (including household appliances and power tools), industrial technology (including drive and control) and energy and building technology.

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Brainpool

Brainpool TV GmbH is a German television production company located in Cologne. It was a subsidiary of VIVA Medien AG between 2001 and 2006, until a management buyout in January 2007. The Movie 'Stromberg - Der Film' was Crowdfunded with 1.000.000 € in one week by 3.000 fans in December 2011.

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Brilliance China Auto

Brilliance Auto Group (officially HuaChen Group Auto Holding Co., Ltd.) is a Chinese automobile manufacturer headquartered in Shenyang. Its products include automobiles, microvans, and automotive components. Its principal activity is the design, development, manufacture and sale of passenger cars sold under the Brilliance brand. In 2010, Brilliance Auto Group and its subsidiaries had an annual production capacity of 800,000 vehicles although capacity additions may have come on-line since. In 2012, the company manufactured almost 650,000 vehicles, the 8th-largest production of any Chinese vehicle maker that year. Roughly 70% of production was consumer sedans.

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CDnow

CDnow operated an online shopping website that sold compact discs and music-related products. In April 1998, during the dot-com bubble, the company was valued at over $1 billion; however, it was acquired by Bertelsmann Music Group in July 2000 for $117 million. In November 2002, Amazon.com began operating the CDNow website, and later shut down. At its peak, it employed over 750 people and had offices in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, New York City, London, and Los Angeles.

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CEWE Color

CEWE is the leading photo service in Europe and a successful supplier in the commercial online printing segment. The company's focus is on innovation and reliable professionalism in every area. With their brand products and a variety of photo gifts, they offer a wide, high-quality photofinishing range. CEWE RETAIL offers customers multi-channel concepts in the form of walk-in shops and online stores.

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Car2Go

car2go is a German car rental company. It is a subsidiary of Daimler AG providing carsharing services in urban areas in Europe, North America, and China. The company offers exclusively Smart Fortwo and Mercedes-Benz vehicles and features one-way point-to-point rentals. Users are charged by the minute, with hourly and daily rates available. The service forgoes the typical centralized rental office, and cars are user-accessed via a downloadable smartphone app wherever they are parked. As of July 2017, car2go is the largest carsharing company in the world with 2,500,000 registered members and a fleet of nearly 14,000 vehicles in 26 locations in North America, Europe and Asia.

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Carnegie Steel

Carnegie Steel Company was a steel producing company primarily created by Andrew Carnegie and several close associates, to manage businesses at steel mills in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area in the late 19th century. The company formed in 1892 and was subsequently sold in 1901 in one of the largest ever business transactions of the early 20th century, to become the major component of the United States Steel Corporation. The subsequent sale made Carnegie one of the richest men in history.

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Cisco

Cisco Systems is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products. Through its numerous acquired subsidiaries, such as OpenDNS, WebEx, Jabber and Jasper, Cisco specializes into specific tech markets, such as Internet of Things (IoT), domain security and energy management. Cisco is the largest networking company in the world.

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Craigslist

Craigslist is an American classified advertisements website with sections devoted to jobs, housing, for sale, items wanted, services, community, gigs, résumés, and discussion forums. Craig Newmark began the service in 1995 as an email distribution list to friends, featuring local events in the San Francisco Bay Area. It became a web-based service in 1996 and expanded into other classified categories. It started expanding to other U.S. cities in 2000, and now covers 70 countries.

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Dell

Dell is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services. Eponymously named after its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest technological corporations in the world, employing more than 103,300 people worldwide. Dell sells personal computers (PCs), servers, data storage devices, network switches, software, computer peripherals, HDTVs, cameras, printers, MP3 players, and electronics built by other manufacturers. The company is well known for its innovations in supply chain management and electronic commerce, particularly its direct-sales model and its 'build-to-order' or 'configure to order' approach to manufacturing—delivering individual PCs configured to customer specifications.

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Denner

Denner is a discount supermarket chain in Switzerland. It is Switzerland's third largest supermarket chain after Migros and Coop with 11.4% market share. It is owned by the Federation of Migros Cooperatives since 2007. As of 2014, Denner has 797 stores (491 own stores and 306 running as franchise) and a revenue of 3.2 billion CHF. Denner is the second largest wine-seller in Switzerland.

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Deutsche Post

The Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL Group, is a German postal service and international courier service company, the world's largest. With its headquarters in Bonn, the corporation has 510,000 employees. The postal division delivers 61 million letters each day in Germany, making it Europe's largest such company. The Express division (DHL) claims to be present in over 220 countries and territories. The Deutsche Post is the successor to the German mail authority Deutsche Bundespost, which was privatized in 1995 and became a fully independent company in 2000. DHL Express is a wholly owned subsidiary. Since its privatization, Deutsche Post has significantly expanded its business area through acquisitions.

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Dollar Shave Club

Dollar Shave Club is a Venice, California-based company that delivers razors and other personal grooming products to customers by mail. It delivers razor blades on a monthly basis and offers additional grooming products for home delivery. Dollar Shave Club was founded by Mark Levine and Michael Dubin. The pair met at a party and spoke of their frustrations with the cost of razor blades. With their own money and investments from start-up incubator Science Inc., they began operations in January 2011 and launched their website in April 2011. On July 19, 2016, Dollar Shave Club was acquired by Unilever for a reported $1 billion in cash.

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Dropbox

Dropbox is a file hosting service operated by American company Dropbox, Inc., headquartered in San Francisco, California, that offers cloud storage, file synchronization, personal cloud, and client software. Dropbox was founded in 2007, by MIT students Drew Houston and Arash Ferdowsi, as a startup company, with initial funding from seed accelerator Y Combinator. It has been ranked as one of the most valuable startups in the US and the world, with a valuation of over US$10 billion, and it has been described as one of Y Combinator's most successful investments to date. However, Dropbox has also experienced criticism and generated controversy for issues including security breaches and privacy concerns.

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Facebook

Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes. Facebook can be accessed from a large range of devices with Internet connectivity, such as desktop computers, laptops and tablet computers, and smartphones. Facebook has more than 2.2 billion monthly active users as of January 2018. Its popularity has led to prominent media coverage for the company, including significant scrutiny over privacy and the psychological effects it has on users.

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Flyeralarm

With almost 300,000 customers, Flyeralarm, founded in 2002, is one of the largest printing companies in Europe. Customers place orders on the E-commerce website and receive products, including flyers, magazines, office supplies, branded accessories, brochures, etc. Users specify the format, size, colour, artwork and paper quality and many orders are delivered within 24 hours. Flyeralarm is an example of an efficient E-commerce website on which the printing process is automated, thereby eliminating intermediaries and reducing costs while customers are attracted to the fast, efficient service and inexpensive printing supplies Flyeralarm offers.

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Ford

Ford is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer, Troller, and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV. In the past, it has also produced tractors and automotive components. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (behind General Motors) and the fifth-largest in the world (behind Toyota, VW, Hyundai-Kia and General Motors) based on 2015 vehicle production.

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Foxconn

Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as Foxconn Technology Group, is a multinational electronics contract manufacturing company headquartered in Tucheng, New Taipei, Taiwan. Today, it is the world's largest contract electronics manufacturer and the fourth-largest information technology company by revenue. The company is the largest private employer in Taiwan and one of the largest employers worldwide. Its founder and chairman is Terry Gou. Foxconn manufactures electronic products for major American, Canadian, Chinese, Finnish, and Japanese companies. Notable products manufactured by Foxconn include the BlackBerry, iPad, iPhone, iPod, Kindle, Nokia devices, PlayStation 4, Wii U, and Xbox One. As of 2012, Foxconn factories manufactured an estimated 40% of all consumer electronics sold worldwide.

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Freitag lab.ag

Founded in 1993, Freitag uses a range of old materials (mainly from vehicles), such as canvas covers from trucks, inner tubes and airbags, to manufacture bags and fashion accessories. The eco-friendly nature of the business attracts many ecologically aware customers and those seeking unusual and stylish designs. The company employs a strong green marketing strategy to support the concept of reusable materials in businesses. The recycling of old materials makes the company’s resource costs very low, but without compromising quality since many of the materials recovered are durable and waterproof. These cost savings can be transferred to customers. Today, the company has over 130 employees and sells its products in more than 400 stores worldwide.

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General Electric

General Electric (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, healthcare, power, renewable energy, digital, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance, lighting, transportation, and oil and gas. In 2017, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 13th-largest firm in the U.S. by gross revenue. In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 20 as the 14th-most profitable company. As of 2012, the company was listed as the fourth-largest in the world among the Forbes Global 2000, further metrics being taken into account. Two employees of GE have been awarded the Nobel Prize: Irving Langmuir in 1932 and Ivar Giaever in 1973.

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Gillette

Gillette is a brand of men's and women's safety razors and other personal care products including shaving supplies, owned by the multi-national corporation Procter & Gamble (P&G). Based in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, it was owned by The Gillette Company, a supplier of products under various brands until that company merged into P&G in 2005. The Gillette Company was founded by King C. Gillette in 1901 as a safety razor manufacturer. Under the leadership of Colman M. Mockler Jr. as CEO from 1975–91, the company was the target of three takeover attempts, from Ronald Perelman and Coniston Partners. On October 1, 2005, Procter & Gamble finalized its merger with the Gillette Company.

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Google

Google is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University, California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google moved to its new headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google, Alphabet's leading subsidiary, will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who became the CEO of Alphabet.

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Groupon

Groupon is an American worldwide e-commerce marketplace connecting subscribers with local merchants by offering activities, travel, goods and services in 15 countries. Based in Chicago, Groupon was launched in November 2008, and the first market for Groupon was Chicago, followed soon thereafter by Boston, New York City and Toronto. By October 2010, Groupon was available in 150 cities in North America and 100 cities in Europe, Asia and South America, and had 35 million registered users. By the end of March 2015, Groupon served more than 500 cities worldwide, nearly 48.1 million active customers and featured more than 425,000 active deals globally in 48 countries.

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H&M

Hennes & Mauritz AB is a Swedish multinational clothing-retail company known for its fast-fashion clothing for men, women, teenagers and children. H&M and its associated companies operate in 62 countries with over 4,500 stores and as of 2015 employed around 132,000 people. It is the second-largest global clothing retailer, just behind Spain-based Inditex (parent company of Zara). The company has a significant on-line presence, with on-line shopping available in 33 countries.

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Harley Davidson

Harley-Davidson, Inc. (H-D), or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in York, Pennsylvania; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Kansas City, Missouri, Manaus, Brazil, and Bawal, India. Construction of a new plant in Thailand is scheduled to begin in late 2018. The company markets its products worldwide. Besides motorcycles, the company licenses and markets merchandise under the Harley-Davidson brand, among them apparel, home decor and ornaments, accessories, toys, and scale figures of its motorcycles, and video games based on its motorcycle line and the community.

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Hewlett-Packard

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP, and stylized as hp) or Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors. Hewlett-Packard split the PC and printers business from its enterprise products and services business on November 1, 2015, resulting in two publicly traded companies: HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. In 2017, Hewlett Packard Enterprise spun-off its Enterprises Services division as DXC Technology and its Software division to Micro Focus.

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Hilti

Hilti Corporation (Hilti Aktiengesellschaft or Hilti AG, also known as Hilti Group) is a Liechtenstein multinational company that develops, manufactures, and markets products for the construction, building maintenance, energy and manufacturing industries, mainly to the professional end-user. It concentrates mainly on anchoring systems, fire protection systems, installation systems, measuring and detection tools (such as laser levels, range meters and line lasers), power tools (such as hammer drills, demolition hammers, diamond drills, cordless electric drills, heavy angle drills, power saws) and related software and services.

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Hindustan Unilever

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is an Indian consumer goods company based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is a subsidiary of Unilever, a British-Dutch company. HUL's products include foods, beverages, cleaning agents, personal care products and water purifiers. HUL was established in 1933 as Lever Brothers and, in 1956, became known as Hindustan Lever Limited, as a result of a merger among Lever Brothers, Hindustan Vanaspati Mfg. Co. Ltd. and United Traders Ltd. It employs over 16,000 workers, while it also indirectly helping to facilitate the employment of over 65,000 people. The company was renamed in June 2007 as 'Hindustan Unilever Limited'

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HomeBuy

The UK government facilitates shared equity chiefly through the Homes and Communities Agency. As of 2009 this was under the banner of HomeBuy. This aims to help households earning up to £60,000 p.a. New Build HomeBuy is where purchasers buy at least 25% of a newly built home, and pay rent on the remainder. The HCA generally subsidises housing associations or other providers to hold the remaining share. The rent is capped at 3% of the value of the unsold share, but typically set at 2.75%. Purchasers may buy additional shares whenever they can afford to do so; this is known as 'staircasing'. HomeBuy Direct was introduced in 2009, under which the government and a housing developer jointly fund an equity loan of 30% of the valuation, so that the purchaser only needs to pay a mortgage on 70% of the value. If the purchaser buys an additional share, all three parties participate in any increase in value. The HCA allocated £300 million to the scheme for 2009—2011, and 10,000 homes are available under the initiative.

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Hotmail

Outlook.com is a web-based suite of webmail, contacts, tasks, and calendaring services from Microsoft. One of the world's first webmail services, it was founded in 1996 as Hotmail (stylized as HoTMaiL) by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith in Mountain View, California, and headquartered in Sunnyvale. Microsoft acquired Hotmail in 1997 for an estimated $400 million and launched it as MSN Hotmail, later rebranded to Windows Live Hotmail as part of the Windows Live suite of products. Microsoft released the final version of Hotmail in October 2011 and it was replaced by Outlook.com in 2013.

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Humble Bundle

Humble Bundle, Inc. is a digital storefront for video games, which grew out of its original offering of Humble Bundles, collections of games sold at a price determined by the purchaser and with a portion of the price going towards charity and the rest split between the game developers. Humble Bundle continues to offer these limited-time bundles, but have expanded to include a greater and more persistent storefront. The Humble Bundle concept was initially run by Wolfire Games in 2010, but by its second bundle, the Humble Bundle company was spun out to manage the promotion, payments, and distribution of the bundles. In October 2017, the company was acquired by Ziff Davis through its IGN Entertainment subsidiary, though will continue to operate as a separate subsidiary.

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IBM

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed 'International Business Machines' in 1924. IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S. patents generated by a business (as of 2018) for 25 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.

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IKEA

IKEA is a Swedish-founded multinational group that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services. It has been the world's largest furniture retailer since at least 2008. It was founded in Sweden in 1943 by 17-year-old Ingvar Kamprad, who was listed by Forbes in 2015 as one of the ten richest people in the world, worth more than $40 billion. The company's name is an acronym that consists of the initials of Ingvar Kamprad (name of founder), Elmtaryd (the farm where he grew up), and Agunnaryd (his hometown in Småland, southern Sweden).

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Intel

Intel Corporation (commonly known as Intel and stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley and on 6 Campus Drive, Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip maker based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung, and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, and Dell. Intel also manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing.

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JCDecaux

JCDecaux Group (JCDecaux SA) is a multinational corporation based in Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France, known for its bus-stop advertising systems, billboards, public bicycle rental systems, and street furniture. It is the largest outdoor advertising corporation in the world. The company was founded in 1964 in Lyon, France by Jean-Claude Decaux. Over the years it has expanded aggressively, partly through acquisitions of smaller advertising companies in several countries. Its headquarters is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, France. JCDecaux currently employs more than 13,030 people worldwide and maintains a presence in over 75 countries. In France alone, JCDecaux employs more than 3,500 people.

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Lamborghini

Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi. Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p.A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era. Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firm's ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978. American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V'Power Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division.

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Lego

Lego System A/S, doing business as The Lego Group (stylised as The LEGO Group), is a Danish toy production company based in Billund. It is best known for the manufacture of Lego-brand toys, consisting mostly of interlocking plastic bricks. The Lego Group has also built several amusement parks around the world, each known as Legoland, and operates numerous retail stores. The company was founded on 10 August 1932 by Ole Kirk Christiansen. The word 'lego' is derived from the Danish words 'leg godt', meaning 'play well'. In the first half of 2015, The Lego Group became the world's largest toy company by revenue, with sales amounting to US$2.1 billion, surpassing Mattel, which had US$1.9 billion in sales. On 11 August 2017, Lego announced that Niels B. Christiansen would become the new CEO, effective 1 October of the same year.

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Lego Factory

Lego Design byME was a service connected with the construction toy Lego. The service was launched in 2005 under the name Lego Factory until changing its name to 'Lego Design byME'. Using this service, people could design their own Lego models using a computer program, then upload them to the Lego website, design their own box design, and order them for actual delivery. The brand also covers a small selection of products that have been designed by Lego fans, and which were available to purchase as a set.

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Levi's

Levi Strauss & Co. is a privately held American clothing company known worldwide for its Levi's brand of denim jeans. It was founded in May 1853 when German immigrant Levi Strauss came from Buttenheim, Bavaria, to San Francisco, California to open a west coast branch of his brothers' New York dry goods business. The company's corporate headquarters is located in the Levi's Plaza in San Francisco.

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LinkedIn

LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Founded on December 28, 2002, and launched on May 5, 2003, it is mainly used for professional networking, including employers posting jobs and job seekers posting their CVs. As of 2015, most of the company's revenue came from selling access to information about its members to recruiters and sales professionals. As of April 2017, LinkedIn had 500 million members in 200 countries, out of which more than 106 million members are active. LinkedIn allows members (both workers and employers) to create profiles and 'connections' to each other in an online social network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone (whether an existing member or not) to become a connection. The 'gated-access approach' (where contact with any professional requires either an existing relationship or an introduction through a contact of theirs) is intended to build trust among the service's members. LinkedIn participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.

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Logitech

Logitech International S.A. is a Swiss provider of personal computer and mobile peripherals, with its headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland and administrative headquarters in Newark, California. In addition to its Swiss and American facilities, the company has offices throughout Europe, Asia and the rest of the Americas. Logitech's sales and marketing activities are organized into three geographic regions: Americas, Europe, Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific. The company develops and markets personal peripherals for PC navigation, video communication and collaboration, music and smart homes. This includes products like keyboards, mice, tablet accessories, webcams, Bluetooth speakers, universal remotes and more.

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Lufthansa

Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa, is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017. The name of the company is derived from the German word, Luft 'air' and Hansa, the Hanseatic League. Lufthansa is one of the five founding members of Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance, formed in 1997.

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Marriott International

Marriott International is an American multinational diversified hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by his son, Executive Chairman Bill Marriott, and President and Chief Executive Officer Arne Sorenson. Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, Marriott International is the largest hotel chain in the world. It has more than 6,500 properties in 127 countries and territories around the world, over 1.2 million rooms (as of September 2017), and an additional 195,000 rooms in the development pipeline. In 2017, Marriott was ranked #33 on Fortune's '100 Best Companies to Work For' list, its twentieth appearance on the list.

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Max Havelaar

Fairtrade International (also known as Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International or Max Havelaar) was established in 1997, and is an association of 3 producer networks, 19 national labelling initiatives and 3 marketing organizations that promote and market the Fairtrade Certification Mark in their countries. Fairtrade labelling organizations exist in 18 European countries as well as in Canada, the United States, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In 2009, Fair trade certified sales amounted to approximately €3.4 billion (US $4.9 billion) worldwide, a 15% increase from 2008. As of 2011, 827 producer organizations in 58 developing countries were FLOCert Fairtrade certified.

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McDonald's

McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, and later turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018.

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McFit

The McFIT GmbH is the largest fitness center chain in Germany and Europe with 246 studios and over 1.4 million members in Germany, Austria, Italy, Poland and Spain. The company's headquarters is in Schlüsselfeld. Directed by founder Rainer Schaller, the company generated about €160 million in total revenue in 2010. The chain follows a no-frills policy: Membership costs €19.90 per month. It includes access to every area, as well as the shower fee. Most clubs in Germany, Austria ,Spain and Poland are open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Members are allowed to bring their own drinks. Until February 2011, McFit offered a free magazine, but it doesn't offer additional services like a wellness area or courses (e.g. Aerobics).

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Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. As of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world's most valuable companies. The word 'Microsoft' is a portmanteau of 'microcomputer' and 'software'.

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Mobility Carsharing

Mobility Carsharing (officially Mobility Cooperative, also known as Mobility Car Sharing or simply Mobility for short) is a Swiss cooperative of car sharing. It covers almost all organised carsharing in Switzerland. Mobility offers 2’930 vehicles at 1’500 sites and 200 scooter in Zurich for private customers as well as mobility solutions for companies.

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Mozilla

Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape. The Mozilla community uses, develops, spreads and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting exclusively free software and open standards, with only minor exceptions. The community is supported institutionally by the not-for-profit Mozilla Foundation and its tax-paying subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation. Mozilla's products include the Firefox web browser, Thunderbird e-mail client, Firefox OS mobile operating system, Bugzilla bug tracking system, Gecko layout engine, Pocket 'read-it-later-online' service, and others.

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Napster

Napster is the name given to three music-focused online services. It was founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing Internet service that emphasized sharing digital audio files, typically audio songs, encoded in MP3 format. The company ran into legal difficulties over copyright infringement. It ceased operations and was eventually acquired by Roxio. In its second incarnation, Napster became an online music store until it was acquired by Rhapsody from Best Buy on December 1, 2011. Later companies and projects successfully followed its P2P file sharing example such as Gnutella, Freenet, Kazaa, BearShare, and many others. However, some services, like LimeWire, Scour, Grokster, Madster, and eDonkey2000, were brought down or changed due to copyright issues.

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Nestlé Nespresso

Nestlé Nespresso S.A., trading as Nespresso, is an operating unit of the Nestlé Group, based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Nespresso machines brew espresso and coffee from coffee capsules, or pods in machines for home or professional use, a type of pre-apportioned single-use container of ground coffee beans, sometimes with added flavorings. Once inserted into a machine, the capsules are pierced and processed, water is then forced against a heating element at high pressure meaning that only the quantity for a single cup is warmed. Nespresso is a premium price coffee, and by 2011 had annual sales in excess of 3 billion Swiss francs. The word Nespresso is a portmanteau of Nestlé and Espresso, a common mechanic used across other Nestlé brands (Nescafé, BabyNes, Nesquik).

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Netflix

Netflix is an American media services provider headquartered in Los Gatos, California, founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. The company's primary business is its subscription-based streaming media service which offers online streaming of a library of films and television programs, including those produced in-house. As of October 2018, Netflix has 137 million total subscribers worldwide, including 58.46 million in the United States. It is available worldwide except in Mainland China, Syria, North Korea, and Crimea. The company also has offices in the Netherlands, Brazil, India, Japan, and South Korea.

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Nike

Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories, and services. The company is headquartered near Beaverton, Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area. It is the world's largest supplier of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012 (ending May 31, 2012). As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014 the brand alone was valued at $19 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses. As of 2017, the Nike brand is valued at $29.6 billion.

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Nintendo

Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, and Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it originally produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s, ultimately becoming one of the most influential in the industry and Japan's third most-valuable company with a market value of over $85 billion. From 1992 until 2016, Nintendo was also the majority shareholder for the Seattle Mariners of Major League Baseball.

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Nokia

Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in Espoo, in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2017, Nokia employed approximately 102,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, and reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. It is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.

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Panera Bread Bakery

Panera Bread Company is a chain store of bakery-café fast casual restaurants in the United States and Canada. Their headquarters are in Sunset Hills, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis, and the company operates as Saint Louis Bread Company in Greater St. Louis. Offerings include soups, salads, pasta, sandwiches, specialty drinks, and bakery items. The company, which also owns Au Bon Pain, is owned by JAB Holding Company and has over 2,000 locations.

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PayPal

PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system that supports online money transfers and serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods like cheques and money orders. The company operates as a payment processor for online vendors, auction sites, and other commercial users, for which it charges a fee in exchange for benefits such as one-click transactions and password memory.

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Payback

PAYBACK is India’s largest multi-brand loyalty program. PAYBACK has a profound influence in the daily lives of more than 100 Million Members. It drives their purchase decisions as they like to earn points on every activity. More than 100 partners are in the program including ICICI Bank, HP Petrol Pumps, Big Bazaar, Central, MobiKwik, Goomo. Members earn points when they shop for grocery, fuel their vehicle, make payments using a Credit / Debit Card or a mobile wallet & more. Not restricted to shopping or payment, members also earn points by writing reviews on TripAdvisor, taking a survey or shopping online via PAYBACK at Amazon, Flipkart, Myntra & other leading shopping websites.

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Pebble Technology

Pebble is a discontinued smartwatch developed by Pebble Technology Corporation. Funding was conducted through a Kickstarter campaign running from April 11, 2012, through May 18, 2012, which raised $10.3 million; at the time, it was the most funded project in Kickstarter history. Pebble began shipping watches to Kickstarter backers in January 2013. Pebble watches can be connected to Android and iOS devices to show notifications and messages. An online app store distributes Pebble-compatible apps from many third party developers, including ESPN, Uber, Runkeeper, and GoPro.

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Pepsi

PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York. PepsiCo has interests in the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company and Frito-Lay, Inc. PepsiCo has since expanded from its namesake product Pepsi to a broader range of food and beverage brands, the largest of which included an acquisition of Tropicana Products in 1998 and the Quaker Oats Company in 2001, which added the Gatorade brand to its portfolio.

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Pinterest

Pinterest, Inc. is a web and mobile application company that operates a software system designed to discover information on the World Wide Web, mainly using images and, on a smaller scale, GIFs and videos. The site was founded by Ben Silbermann, Paul Sciarra and Evan Sharp. Pinterest has reached 250 million monthly active users as of October 2018. Pinterest CEO Ben Silbermann summarized the company as a 'catalogue of ideas' that inspires users to 'go out and do that thing', rather than as an image-based social network.

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Porsche

Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen AG, which is itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera, Macan and Cayenne.

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Procter & Gamble

The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble. It specializes in a wide range of personal health/consumer health, and personal care and hygiene products; these products are organized into several segments including Beauty; Grooming; Health Care; Fabric & Home Care; and Baby, Feminine & Family Care. Before the sale of Pringles to the Kellogg Company, its product portfolio also included foods, snacks, and beverages.

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Red Bull

Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Austrian company created in 1987. Red Bull has the highest market share of any energy drink in the world, with 6.302 billion cans sold in a year (as of 2017). Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by an existing energy drink named Krating Daeng, which was first introduced and sold in Thailand by Chaleo Yoovidhya. He took this idea, modified the ingredients to suit the tastes of Westerners, and, in partnership with Chaleo, founded Red Bull GmbH in 1987 in Chakkapong, Thailand. In Thai, daeng means red, and a krating (known in English as a gaur or Indian bison) is a large species of wild bovine native to South Asia. Yoovidhya's heirs own majority stakes in both brands, and they both use the same red bull on yellow sun logo while continuing to market the separate drinks to the respective Thai and Western markets.

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Renault

Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, and in the past has manufactured trucks, tractors, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot.

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Richelieu Foods

Richelieu Foods is a private label food manufacturing company founded in 1862, headquartered in Randolph, Massachusetts, previously owned by investment group Brynwood Partners and owned from 2010 by investment group Centerview Partners LLC and sold December 2017 to Freiberger USA Inc., Morris Plains, New Jersey, USA, a subsidiary of the german Südzucker AG. The company—which produced frozen pizza, salad dressing, sauces, marinades, condiments and deli salads to be marketed by other companies as their store brand or white label brand—manufactures over 50 million frozen pizzas and more than 20 million finished crusts annually, reporting more than $200 million in yearly sales.

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Rolls-Royce

Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they quickly developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the 'best car in the world'. The First World War brought them into manufacturing aero engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production.

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Ryanair

Ryanair DAC is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports. In 2016, Ryanair was the largest European airline by scheduled passengers flown, and carried more international passengers than any other airline. Ryanair operates more than 400 Boeing 737-800 aircraft, with a single 737-700 used primarily as a charter aircraft, but also as a backup and for pilot training. The airline has been characterised by its rapid expansion, a result of the deregulation of the aviation industry in Europe in 1997 and the success of its low-cost business model. Ryanair's route network serves 37 countries in Europe, Africa (Morocco), and the Middle East (Israel and Jordan).

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SAP

SAP SE (Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung, 'Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing') is a German-based European multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. SAP is headquartered in Walldorf, Baden-Württemberg, Germany with regional offices in 180 countries. The company has over 335,000 customers in over 180 countries. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.

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SBB

Swiss Federal Railways (German: Schweizerische Bundesbahnen, SBB; French: Chemins de fer fédéraux suisses, CFF; Italian: Ferrovie federali svizzere, FFS) is the national railway company of Switzerland. It is usually referred to by the initials of its German, French and Italian names, either concatenated as SBB CFF FFS, or used separately. The Romansh version of its name, Viafiers federalas svizras, is not officially used. The company is headquartered in Bern. It used to be a government institution, but since 1999 it has been a special stock corporation whose shares are held by the Swiss Confederation or the Swiss cantons.

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Salesforce

Salesforce.com, Inc. (styled in its logo as salesƒorce; abbreviated usually as SF or SFDC) is an American cloud computing company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Though its revenue comes from a customer relationship management (CRM) product, Salesforce also sells commercial applications of social networking through acquisition and internal development. Salesforce was ranked first in Fortune's 100 Best Companies to Work For in 2018.

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Sega

Sega Games Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. The company, previously known as both Sega Enterprises Ltd. and Sega Corporation, is a subsidiary of Sega Holdings Co., Ltd., which itself is part of Sega Sammy Holdings. Sega's North American division, Sega of America, is headquartered in Irvine, California, while its European division, Sega of Europe, is headquartered in London. The formation of Sega is traced back to the founding of Nihon Goraku Bussan in 1960 to take over the distribution activities of Service Games of Japan. After acquiring Rosen Enterprises in 1965, the company became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Sega began developing coin-operated games in 1966 with Periscope, an arcade game.

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Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British-Dutch oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas 'supermajors' and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues (and the largest based in Europe). Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies; in that year its revenues were equivalent to 84% of the Netherlands' $556 billion GDP.

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Skype

Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones. Skype additionally provides instant messaging services. Users may transmit both text and video messages, and may exchange digital documents such as images, text, and video. Skype allows video conference calls.

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SlideShare

SlideShare (today LinkedIn SlideShare) is a hosting service for professional content including presentations, infographics, documents, and videos. Users can upload files privately or publicly in PowerPoint, Word, PDF, or OpenDocument format. Content can then be viewed on the site itself, on hand held devices or embedded on other sites. Launched on October 4, 2006, the website is considered to be similar to YouTube, but for slideshows. It was acquired by LinkedIn in 2012. The website was originally meant to be used for businesses to share slides among employees more easily, but it also has expanded to become a host of a large number of slides that are uploaded merely to entertain. Although the website is primarily a slide hosting service, it also supports documents, PDFs, videos and webinars. SlideShare also provides users the ability to rate, comment on, and share the uploaded content.

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Spotify

Spotify Technology S.A. is a music streaming service developed by Swedish company Spotify Technology, which is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden. Spotify launched their service on 7 October 2008. As of 20 August, 2018, it is available in 65 regions. It provides DRM-protected content from record labels and media companies. Spotify is a freemium service; basic features are free with advertisements or limitations, while additional features, such as improved streaming quality and music downloads, are offered via paid subscriptions.

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Standard Oil Company

Standard Oil Co. Inc. was an American oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refinery in the world of its time. Its history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the United States Supreme Court, in a landmark case, ruled that Standard Oil was an illegal monopoly.

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Starbucks

Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain. Starbucks was founded in Seattle, Washington in 1971. As of 2018, the company operates 28,218 locations worldwide. Starbucks is considered the main representative of 'second wave coffee', initially distinguishing itself from other coffee-serving venues in the US by taste, quality, and customer experience while popularizing darkly roasted coffee. Since the 2000s, third wave coffee makers have targeted quality-minded coffee drinkers with hand-made coffee based on lighter roasts, while Starbucks nowadays uses automated espresso machines for efficiency and safety reasons.

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Subway

Subway is an American privately held fast food restaurant franchise that primarily sells submarine sandwiches (subs) and salads. Subway is one of the fastest-growing franchises in the world and, as of June 2017, has approximately 45,000 stores located in more than 100 countries. More than half of the stores are located in the United States. It is the largest single-brand restaurant chain, and the largest restaurant operator, in the world.

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Swatch

Swatch (stylized as swatch) is a Swiss watchmaker founded in 1983 by Nicolas Hayek and a subsidiary of The Swatch Group. The Swatch product line was developed as a response to the 'quartz crisis' of the 1970s and 1980s, in which Asian-made digital watches were competing against traditional European-made mechanical watches. The name Swatch is a contraction of 'second watch', as the watches were intended as casual, disposable accessories.

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Tchibo

Tchibo is a German chain of coffee retailers and cafés known for its range of non-coffee products that change weekly. The latter includes: clothing, household items, electronics and electrical appliances. In Germany, Tchibo's slogan is 'Every week a new world' (German: Jede Woche eine neue Welt). Tchibo has further expanded its product range to sell services such as travel, insurance and mobile-phone contracts. With over 1,000 shops, Tchibo is one of Germany's largest retail chains. The company is headquartered in Hamburg. Tchibo's coffee is sold in supermarkets in the United States, Canada, the Czech Republic, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Hungary, Ukraine, Syria, Israel, Jordan, Russia, United Arab Emirates, Poland, United Kingdom, and Lebanon.

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Tetra Pak

Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging and processing sub-company of Tetra Laval, with head offices in Lund, Sweden, and Lausanne, Switzerland. The company offers packaging, filling machines and processing for dairy, beverages, cheese, ice-cream and prepared food, including distribution tools like accumulators, cap applicators, conveyors, crate packers, film wrappers, line controllers and straw applicators.

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The Home Depot

The Home Depot Inc. or Home Depot is an American home improvement supplies retailing company that sells tools, construction products, and services. The company is headquartered at the Atlanta Store Support Center in unincorporated Cobb County, Georgia (with an Atlanta mailing address). It operates many big-box format stores across the United States (including all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam), all 10 provinces of Canada, and the 32 federal entities of Mexico. The MRO company Interline Brands is also owned by The Home Depot with 70 distribution centers across the United States.

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Toyota

Toyota Motor Corporation, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world by revenue. As of 2017, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer. Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it also reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization and by revenue.

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Twitter

Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as 'tweets'. Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Registered users can post tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.

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Valve Corporation

Valve Corporation is an American video game developer, publisher and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. It is the developer of the software distribution platform Steam and the Half-Life, Counter-Strike, Portal, Day of Defeat, Team Fortress, Left 4 Dead, and Dota 2 games. Valve was founded in 1996 by former Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington. Their debut product, the PC first-person shooter Half-Life, was released in 1998 to critical acclaim and commercial success, after which Harrington left the company. In 2003, Valve launched Steam, which accounted for around half of digital PC game sales by 2011. By 2012, Valve employed around 250 people and was reportedly worth over US$3 billion, making it the most profitable company per employee in the United States. In 2015, Valve entered the game hardware market with the Steam Machine, a line of third-party built gaming PCs running Valve's SteamOS operating system.

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Verizon Communications

Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is based at 1095 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but is incorporated in Delaware. In 1984, the Justice Department of the United States mandated AT&T Corporation to break up the Bell System and split into seven companies, called 'Baby Bells'. One of the baby bells, Bell Atlantic, came into existence in 1984 consisting of the separate operating companies New Jersey Bell, Bell of Pennsylvania, Diamond State Telephone, and C&P Telephone, with a footprint from New Jersey to Virginia. This company would later become Verizon.

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Walmart

Walmart Inc. (formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores. Headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas, the company was founded by Sam Walton in 1962 and incorporated on October 31, 1969. It also owns and operates Sam's Club retail warehouses. As of January 31, 2018, Walmart has 11,718 stores and clubs in 28 countries, operating under 59 different names. The company operates under the name Walmart in the United States and Canada, as Walmart de México y Centroamérica in Mexico and Central America, as Asda in the United Kingdom, as the Seiyu Group in Japan, and as Best Price in India. It has wholly owned operations in Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Canada, and South Africa.

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Warby Parker

JAND, Inc., doing business as Warby Parker, is an American online retailer of prescription glasses and sunglasses, based in New York City. Warby Parker primarily sells products through their website, but also feature retail locations in the U.S. and Canada. The company was founded in 2010 in Philadelphia by Neil Blumenthal, Andrew Hunt, David Gilboa, and Jeffrey Raider, and is headquartered in New York City. The name 'Warby Parker' derives from two characters that appear in a journal by author Jack Kerouac. The company's official corporate name is JAND Inc. and 'Warby Parker' is the company's trade name.

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Wikipedia

Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia based on a model of openly editable content; a wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, and is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank. It is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which operates on money it receives from donors.

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Xerox

Xerox Corporation is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut (having moved from Stamford, Connecticut in October 2007), though its largest population of employees is based around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded. The company purchased Affiliated Computer Services for $6.4 billion in early 2010. As a large developed company, it is consistently placed in the list of Fortune 500 companies.

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YouTube

YouTube, LLC is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries. YouTube allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program.

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Zara

Zara SA is a Spanish fast fashion (clothing and accessories) retailer based in Arteixo (A Coruña) in Galicia. The company was founded in 1975 by Amancio Ortega and Rosalía Mera. It is the main brand of the Inditex group, the world's largest apparel retailer. The fashion group also owns brands such as Massimo Dutti, Pull&Bear, Bershka, Stradivarius, Oysho, Zara Home, and Uterqüe. Zara as of 2017 manages up to 20 clothing collections a year.

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eBay

eBay Inc. is an American multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website. eBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in 1995, and became a notable success story of the dot-com bubble. eBay is a multibillion-dollar business with operations in about 30 countries, as of 2011. The company manages eBay.com, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a wide variety of goods and services worldwide. The website is free to use for buyers, but sellers are charged fees for listing items after a limited number of free listings, and again when those items are sold.