€35.01 billion (2017)
How they do it: Bayer licensing agreements can range from very comprehensive approaches and multiple assets to focused single asset options in early or later stages of the drug development process. This also includes research alliances under very comprehensive licensing agreements with academic institutes and research centers, whose technologies complement Bayer’s own expertise in our core research areas.
How they do it: Reverse engineering is typically used to decode an generic innovator product’s formulation parameters. Such parameters include the quantitative composition of the innovator product, the solid-state characterization of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, and the manufacturing process.