$156.7 billion (2017)
How they do it: Automakers such as Ford are a typical example of integrators, as they control the whole product process from engineering and manufacturing to marketing and sales but ultimately source a lot of the parts from suppliers. They have strong partnerships with different suppliers and worked collaboratively on developing the individual parts for each model. This allows the suppliers to focus on specific applications of their part and build expertise whereas the OEM can focus on assembly and marketing.
How they do it: Ford uses its iconic blue oval logo to license its use to other product areas besides cars and has build a substantial amount of revenue in this area. Licensees include categories such as aftermarket stores, dealers, merchandise, toys or video games. However the intention behind it is not only to generate additional revenue but also to widen the reach of the brand and ”bring the brand where the consumer is” (e.g. convenient stores).
How they do it: Automakers such as Ford started manufacturing no frills models to also target customer groups with low purchasing power. No frills automobiles often have only minimum convenience equipment, a less powerful engine and are fully trimmed on cost savings. Other areas of saving are for example less sound-proof material, plastic dashboards instead of rubber and less options to adjust the seat.