$52.056 billion (2017)
How they do it: Hewlett-Packard’s printers have only limited compability with 3rd party ink cartridges, leading to a lock-in effect for customers once they purchased a Hewlett-Packard printer device.
Razor And Blade
How they do it: Hewlett-Packard sold both inkjet and laser printers individually as well as in multi-function products incl. scanner, copier and fax functionalities. Whereas the electronic products were sold at low prices, the company earned a lot of money with the special ink cartridges as a consumable.
Rent Instead Of Buy
How they do it: Hewlett-Packard allowed its business customers to rent equipment. This allows customers to balance seasonality in server and storage capacity, data center move or consolidations, or disaster recovery.