$79.139 billion (2017)
How they do it: IBM services its customers with solutions to limit their downtime risks and guarantees its customers the security of their data. One example is the IBM Storwize system which are employed in business-critical environments all over the world. Here, IBM developed a system which safely backs up clients data in a continuous way. The solution can be individualized and scaled to individual business needs.
How they do it: As IBM is the business with most patents generated per year in the US, it provides customers to license some of its IP. This includes not only the licensing of the patent but also access to IBM’s team of researchers, scientists and developers and further infrastructure to generate revenues with the IP.
How they do it: IBM is one of the pioneers of open source development and showed how open source projects can be successful e.g. with the operating system Linux, which follows the open source approach. IBM runs a platform for open source projects and has released some of its technologies under open source licenses. The platform enables developers and researchers to collaboratively develop solutions.
How they do it: IBM acts as a full range solution provider for its products. For example its Global Technology Services business unit which provides its clients strategic outsourcing and other support services, includes both the provision of hardware capacity as well as maitenance and support services.