How they do it: Zara employs hundreds of designers and fashion observers world-wide to ensure early recognition of fashion trends and developments. New designs resulting from these scouts may be produced by Zara’s integrated value chain in a mere few weeks.
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How they do it: In offering its personalized computers through their direct selling channels, Dell applied a push-to-pull strategy. Concretely, Dell predefines which part of the computer can be configurated individually and then ”pushes” predetermined options/configurations of their product to the customer. The customer then ”pulls” by choosing one of those options and the customized order is then ”pulled” through the supply chain.
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How they do it: The Toyota Production System set off demand-driven production, replenishing the inventory on demand so that internal inventories were reduced to a minimum. The introduction of the Toyota Production System obliged the company to reorganise its entire value chain in such a way as to reduce waste and costs, and at the same time maintain a clear customer focus.
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