How they do it: For products directly sold by Amazon in its online store, Amazon controls the whole value chain starting from the point of finished manufacturing. Own branded items allow the company to determine price and availability in its store and also allow for preferred promotion of own-brand products with a potential higher margin.
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How they do it: Standard Oil Company’s successful, but illegal, integrator strategy ultimately lead to its demise. In a landmark case, the U.S. Supreme Court dismantled it in 1911, as it was ruled to be an illegal monopoly. Standard Oil dominated the oil products market initially through horizontal integration in the refining sector, then, in later years vertical integration alongside the value chain, streamlining production and logistics, lowering costs, and undercutting competitors.
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How they do it: Unlike other apparel retailers, Zara does not outsource production of its garments to low-cost manufacturing countries, but operates a number of factories in Spain and other European countries to produce the majority of products in-house. Integrating the different steps in the value chain enables Zara to respond to fashion trends very quickly, in turn positioning them as a leader in the industry.
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How they do it: JCDecaux provides advertisers with the possibility to show their ads and organizes the infrastucture to present the ads on such as billboards and street furniture. However the manufacturing and design of the infrastructure is performed by 3rd party partners.
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How they do it: Aravind pioneered an outreach program wherein a team of professionals reach out to remote villages to conduct eye camps sponsored by community based organizations. Patients requiring further care or surgery are taken back to the hospital and treated for free.
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