How they do it: Carnegie steel controlled not only the mills where the steel was made, but also the mines where the iron ore was extracted, the coal mines that supplied the coal, the ships that transported the iron ore and the railroads that transported the coal to the factory, the coke ovens where the coal was cooked, etc.
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How they do it: For products directly sold by Amazon in its online store, Amazon controls the whole value chain starting from the point of finished manufacturing. Own branded items allow the company to determine price and availability in its store and also allow for preferred promotion of own-brand products with a potential higher margin.
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How they do it: Lufthansa’s product offering to passenger is the flight from location A to B. However, the company performs only the actual flight but not the process steps before and after such as baggage handling, airport service and maitenance etc.. This is usually performed by 3rd parties which are not paid by the customer though but paid for by Lufthansa.
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How they do it: Unlike other apparel retailers, Zara does not outsource production of its garments to low-cost manufacturing countries, but operates a number of factories in Spain and other European countries to produce the majority of products in-house. Integrating the different steps in the value chain enables Zara to respond to fashion trends very quickly, in turn positioning them as a leader in the industry.
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How they do it: JCDecaux provides advertisers with the possibility to show their ads and organizes the infrastucture to present the ads on such as billboards and street furniture. However the manufacturing and design of the infrastructure is performed by 3rd party partners.
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