How they do it: Carnegie steel controlled not only the mills where the steel was made, but also the mines where the iron ore was extracted, the coal mines that supplied the coal, the ships that transported the iron ore and the railroads that transported the coal to the factory, the coke ovens where the coal was cooked, etc.
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How they do it: Unlike other apparel retailers, Zara does not outsource production of its garments to low-cost manufacturing countries, but operates a number of factories in Spain and other European countries to produce the majority of products in-house. Integrating the different steps in the value chain enables Zara to respond to fashion trends very quickly, in turn positioning them as a leader in the industry.
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How they do it: JCDecaux provides advertisers with the possibility to show their ads and organizes the infrastucture to present the ads on such as billboards and street furniture. However the manufacturing and design of the infrastructure is performed by 3rd party partners.
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How they do it: Netflix’s core offering is providing the infrastructure and user interface for customers to watch content on the platform. The content in form of movies, shows etc. is usually not produced by Netflix (although they started producing their own shows and movies as well). As such Netflix can focus on the technical site of their platform as well as on user acquisition and license content from rights owners.
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How they do it: Standard Oil Company’s successful, but illegal, integrator strategy ultimately lead to its demise. In a landmark case, the U.S. Supreme Court dismantled it in 1911, as it was ruled to be an illegal monopoly. Standard Oil dominated the oil products market initially through horizontal integration in the refining sector, then, in later years vertical integration alongside the value chain, streamlining production and logistics, lowering costs, and undercutting competitors.
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