How they do it: Lego parts allow individual recombination of the parts. However this recombination is only possible with other official Lego parts and no other toys. This leads to a lock-in for customers, as the size of an existing Lego collection determines also the value of new Lego products, as the recombination possibilities are increasing.
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How they do it: Once a customer owns a Nintendo console, the only games compatible are the ones licensed by Nintendo itself. This means that Nintendo generates additional revenue with every game sold. It is generally not possible to run 3rd party games on the console which are not certified by Nintendo.
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How they do it: Data lock-in risks become evident when you need to move your data from one software vendor’s systems or servers to another. Companies using SAP’s software are locked in to the SAP ecosystem and may face difficulities in organizational rigidity and switching costs when deciding to switch to a competitor’s system, leading to a competitive advantage of SAP.
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How they do it: Nespresso coffee system is protected by more than 100 patents. This allowed the company to keep competitors from selling coffee capsules compatible with the Nespresso system. However in recent years some patents expired leading to multiple brands manufacturing and selling Nespresso compatible coffee capsules.
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How they do it: Through their Google Playstore, the company offers both content and apps for its customers. However, these can only be used on the respective environments and not be transferred to other environments. Hence, once the customer is used to the service and has purchased a lot of content or apps, the switching costs are very high.
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